The Implementation Science Branch (ISB) supports research on the prevention and treatment of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders, through implementation research for populations and communities in real-world settings. The ISB’s goal is to support integrated and coordinated research programs that emphasize the multilevel factors associated with the successful implementation of evidence-based interventions and guidelines within clinical and community settings (e.g., worksites, communities, health systems/practitioners or schools). A key area of focus includes implementation science that addresses the prevention and treatment of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders in people living with HIV. Another goal of ISB is to accelerate the integration of evidence-based genomic applications into implementation science using validated implementation research frameworks.
The ISB supports integrated research programs to explore the contributing factors to the successful implementation and scale-up of evidence-based interventions in health care settings, worksites, and communities. The ISB programs seek to speed the progression from discovery to widespread implementation by harnessing effective dissemination strategies, identifying and encouraging exploration of knowledge gaps, and promoting validated research frameworks, delivery and implementation strategies for proven effective preventive treatment interventions in real-world practice and community settings. Primary implementation outcomes include acceptability, affordability, appropriateness, cost, feasibility, fidelity, penetration, and sustainability of interventions for heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders and their comorbidities, including HIV and behavioral health issues. The ISB also supports rigorous systematic evidence reviews in collaboration with partner organizations and agencies which serve as the foundation for the development, adoption, and implementation of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines.
Implementation Science and Health Care Innovation
The Implementation Science and Health Care Innovation program focuses on a rigorous evidence review, evidence integration, and implementation research that will lead to generalizable knowledge and help accelerate innovation in healthcare delivery for the prevention and treatment of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders in clinical and community settings. The research includes innovative strategies, methods, tools, and technologies to quicken implementation and de-implementation research; inclusion of data from pragmatic trials; decision planning support tools for public and healthcare professions to use to overcome barriers and move toward shared decision making and risk communication.
Implementation Science and Health Systems
The Implementation Science and Health Systems program supports research on the frameworks, methodologies, and strategies to understand late stage T4 implementation on health systems, population-level, and community-based data. Methodologies that advance multi-site implementation, pragmatic hybrid implementation clinical trails and mixed method studies for heart, lung, blood and sleep diseases are of interest. Complex methodology studies including predictive analytics and machine learning to improve the translation of knowledge into health impact using big data and learning health systems are encouraged.
Implementation Science and Genomics
The Implementation Science and Genomics program supports innovative methods and approaches to improve the integration of genomic discoveries into real-world settings, and to enhance precision medicine initiatives in heart, lung, blood and sleep disorders. This program also aims to accelerate the translation of evidence-based genomic findings into clinical and public health practices, offering promising opportunities for precision prevention, detection, evaluation, treatment, and control of HLBS diseases and disorders for diverse populations. Additionally, the program supports research that emphasizes the use of validated implementation research frameworks to explore the adoption, scale-up, and greater use of clinical practice guidelines when available for genetic and rare diseases, including sickle cell disease and familial hypocholesteremia.
Implementation Science in HIV/AIDS
The Implementation Science in HIV/AIDS program supports implementation science strategies to address barriers that impede the scale-up and application of scientifically proven interventions in community and clinical settings for the prevention, control, and treatment of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders in people living with HIV. Research in this program seeks to understand the relevant patient, provider, and public health stakeholders, to examine novel and innovative late-stage implementation science strategies, to reduce disease burden worldwide, and to improve the quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS.
The NHLBI HIV/AIDS Program provides overall leadership for research in the areas of HIV and heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders. The NIH Office of AIDS Research develops the Trans-NIH Strategic Plan for HIV and HIV-Related Research, which serves as a roadmap for NIH HIV/AIDS research.
Implementation Science of Sleep and Regulation
The Implementation Science of Sleep and Regulation program supports research related to sleep-disordered breathing, the fundamental functions of sleep and circadian rhythms and airway regulation. Areas of focus include research that advances the late-stage T4 translation of effective interventions to improve behavioral and lifestyle factors and social and environmental influences that improve physical health, sleep health, airway functions, and metabolic functions and that also lower the risk of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders. Other research priorities include strategies to facilitate the population-level implementation of evidence-based interventions to decrease the disproportionate burden of sleep, cardiopulmonary, and metabolic disorders among children, certain racial or ethnic groups, and those from certain socioeconomic backgrounds.