What is the goal of the WGS project?
The goal of the WGS project is to collect whole-genome sequencing data from individuals with well-defined phenotypes and existing clinical outcomes data. This project supports the Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program, which generates scientific resources to improve the understanding of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders and advance precision medicine.
How does the WGS project contribute to scientific discoveries?
The WGS project aims to provide whole-genome sequencing data that researchers can use to identify genetic markers of increased or decreased risk of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders, as well as markers that help define disorder subtypes. Among the WGS project participants are people who have these conditions:
- Cardiovascular disorders, such as atrial fibrillation, high blood pressure, and stroke
- Lung disorders, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and sarcoidosis
- Blood disorders, such as sickle cell disease, hemophilia, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism
- Sleep disorders, such as sleep apnea
The NHLBI TOPMed program will combine genomic data from the WGS project with other -omics data and with molecular, behavioral, imaging, environmental, and clinical data from participants. These data resources will advance research to improve the prevention and treatment of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders.
How does the WGS project work?
The WGS project has performed whole-genome sequencing over 90,000 participants from over 30 studies. Many of these participants are from the following NHLBI-funded studies:
- Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC)
- Framingham Heart Study
- Jackson Heart Study
- Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)
- Women’s Health Initiative (WHI)
- Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL)
- Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (CARDIA)
- Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study (SPIROMICS)
- COPDGene Study
The WGS project is making strides to establish a genomic resource that reflects the diverse U.S. population. Among current WGS project participants, less than 50 percent are of European descent, 30 percent are of African descent, 10 percent are of Hispanic or Latino descent, and 8 percent are of Asian descent. A recent study found that 81 percent of participants in genome-wide association studies are of European ancestry. By intentionally including participants with a variety of racial and ethnic backgrounds, the WGS is creating a unique and valuable genomic resource.
Researchers have started releasing WGS project data through the NIH Database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP). The dbGaP was developed to archive and distribute data from studies that have investigated the interaction of genotype and phenotype, including all genome-wide association studies supported by the NIH. Currently, the WGS project has released over 30,000 whole genome sequences in dbGAP and approximately 45,000 more will be added to dbGaP in early 2018.
The NHLBI will continue growing this valuable whole-genome sequence public data resource and hopes to sequence over 120,000 individual genomes. As this effort expands, we will look for ways to include more underrepresented groups and heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders. We also will look for opportunities to integrate whole-genome sequencing with other -omics data.