The 2017 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine has been awarded to National Institutes of Health grantees Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash, and Michael W. Young for their groundbreaking discoveries on the molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm, or the body’s internal biological clock. Collectively, their discoveries have catalyzed many research breakthroughs related to sleep, health, and disease. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences said, “the paradigm-shifting discoveries by the laureates established key mechanistic principles for the biological clock.” Drs. Young and Rosbash have received continuous funding from NIH since 1975 primarily from NIH’s National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) and National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). Dr. Rosbash’s work has also been supported by NIH’s National Institute on Aging (NIA), National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). NHLBI is home to the National Center on Sleep Disorders Research.