People who have conditions that damage the lungs or increase the risk of lung infections are at risk for bronchiectasis. Such conditions include:
- Cystic fibrosis. This disease leads to almost half of the cases of bronchiectasis in the United States.
- Immunodeficiency disorders, such as common variable immunodeficiency and, less often, HIV and AIDS.
- Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. This is an allergic reaction to a fungus called aspergillus. The reaction causes swelling in the airways.
- Disorders that affect cilia function, such as primary ciliary dyskinesia. Cilia are small, hair-like structures that line your airways. They help clear mucus (a slimy substance) out of your airways.
Bronchiectasis can develop at any age. Overall, two-thirds of people who have the condition are women. However, in children, the condition is more common in boys than in girls.