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An Ecological Model of Diet, Physical Activity, and Obesity

There are a variety of influences that have an effect on behaviors which, in turn, affect energy balance, and may alter health outcomes.

The potential influences are:

Biological & Demographic
(e.g. Age, sex, race/ethnicity, SES, genes)

Psychological
(e.g. Beliefs, preferences, emotions, self-efficacy, intentions, pros, cons, behavior change skills, body image, motivation, knowledge)

Social/Cultural
(e.g. Social support, modeling, family factors, social norms, cultural beliefs, acculturation)

Organizational
(e.g. Practices, programs, norms, & policies in schools, worksite, health care settings, businesses, community organizations)

Physical Environment
(e.g. Access to & quality of foods, recreational facilities, cars, sedentary entertainment; urban design, transportation infrastructure, information environment)

Policies/Incentives
(e.g. Cost of foods, physical activities, & sedentary behaviors; incentives for behaviors; regulation of environments)

The behaviors affecting energy balance:

Eating
(e.g. Dietary patterns, nutrient intake)

Sedentary Behaviors
(e.g. TV, computer use, driving)

Physical Activity
(e.g. Recreation, transportation, occupation, domestic)

The behaviors affect:

Body Weight, Fat, & Distribution

which, in turn, affect the following health outcomes:

Risk Factors, CVD, Diabetes, Cancers

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