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Stewart Levine, M.D.

Laboratory of Asthma and Lung Inflammation

Stewart Levine
Stewart Levine, M.D.
Senior Investigator
Laboratory of Asthma and Lung Inflammation
Building 10 Room 6D08
Bethesda, MD 20892-1590
P: +1 (301) 402-1448
F: +1 (301) 451-5633


Stewart Levine received his M.D. from the State University of New York at Stony Brook School of Medicine in 1983. He did his internship and residency in internal medicine at St. Vincent’s Hospital and Medical Center in New York City and fellowships in pulmonary medicine at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center from 1986 to 1988 and critical care medicine with the NIH from 1989 to 1995. He joined the NIH as a staff clinician in the Critical Care Medicine Department of the Clinical Center in 1995, became a tenure-track Investigator in the NHLBI in 1998, and was promoted to Senior Investigator in 2007. He also served as a Medical Officer in the U.S. Public Health Service. Since 2008, he has been the Medical Director of the NHLBI’s Upper Cardozo Pulmonary Clinic. In 2012, he received the NHLBI Division of Intramural Research Orloff Science Award. He has authored or coauthored more than 75 publications. He is on the editorial boards of Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine and Chest, is a member of the American Society for Clinical Investigation, as well as the American Thoracic Society, American College of Chest Physicians, American Association for the Advancement of Science, and American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. He is also a member of the Executive Board of the Metropolitan D.C. Thoracic Society. Additionally he holds two patents from his work.

Research Interests

Asthma is a common disease that affects 300 million people worldwide. The pathogenesis of asthma involves airway inflammation, as well as airway remodeling and hyperreactivity, which leads to difficulty in breathing which can be deadly if not properly controlled. Steroid medications can successfully treat asthma in most cases. However, the side-effects of long-term steroid administration can be profound, and in the approximately 5% of patients with severe refractory asthma, these medications fail to adequately control the disease. Dr. Levine is focused on developing new treatment approaches for patients with severe asthma.

In a mouse model of experimental asthma, Dr. Levine's laboratory exposed mice to house dust mites (HDM). Using a genome-wide analysis of the lung transcriptome, Dr. Levine and colleagues have identified genes that are upregulated as a result of the disease and whose activity is not modulated by the administration of corticosteroids. Of the 68 steroid-unresponsive genes discovered through this approach, the Levine laboratory initially focused on one that had not been previously implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma, apolipoprotein E (ApoE).

Dr. Levine’s group has shown that ApoE, which is made by macrophages in the lung, binds to low density lipoprotein receptors (LDLR) that are expressed by ciliated airway epithelial cells. In doing so, ApoE attenuates airway remodeling (mucous cell metaplasia) and airway hyperreactivity. Moreover, he has demonstrated that the administration of a small ApoE mimetic peptide to HDM-challenged mice markedly attenuates the three key pathogenic features of asthma: airway inflammation, airway remodeling, and airway hyperreactivity.

In related studies, Dr. Levine is working with colleagues at the NHLBI to study the role of peptide mimetics of apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) in their murine model of asthma, as well as the role of apoA-I pathways in asthma pathogenesis. While furthering his research into the mechanisms that modulate disease severity in asthma, Dr. Levine hopes to complete the next phase of preclinical work necessary to move the concept of apolipoprotein mimetics for the treatment of asthma from mouse models into the first human clinical trials.

Dr. Levine’s laboratory has also identified several miRNAs that are modulated in their mouse model of asthma that are similarly unresponsive to corticosteroids. Dr. Levine and his colleagues are currently developing transgenic mouse models to investigate the role of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of asthma.

A clinician-scientist, Dr. Levine supervises a clinical program to study severe asthma and advance promising experimental therapeutics toward patient use. He and his colleagues have an ongoing randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of the medication pioglitazone, a PPARg agonist that is currently used for the treatment of diabetes, to assess its ability to improve the quality of life of patients with severe refractory asthma. Click on this link for more information about the Pioglitazone (Actos®) Severe Asthma study. They are also beginning a longitudinal study to better understand the progression of severe refractory asthma and its response to treatment.  Click on this link for more information about our Longitudinal Study of Severe Asthmapdf document (188KB).  These studies will not only have direct clinical implications, but will also advance the basic side of Dr. Levine’s research program, leading to even further clinical progress and, eventually, the possibility of ensuring that everyone with asthma can manage it simply and effectively.

Selected Publications

Apolipoprotein A-I attenuates ovalbumin-induced neutrophilic airway inflammation via a granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-dependent mechanism.
Dai C, Yao X, Keeran KJ, Zywicke GJ, Qu X, Yu ZX, Dagur PK, McCoy JP, Remaley AT, Levine SJ
Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 2012 Aug;47(2):186-95.
Human apolipoprotein E genotypes differentially modify house dust mite-induced airway disease in mice.
Yao X, Dai C, Fredriksson K, Lam J, Gao M, Keeran KJ, Nugent GZ, Qu X, Yu ZX, Jeffries N, Lin J, Kaler M, Shamburek R, Costello R, Csako G, Dahl M, Nordestgaard BG, Remaley AT, Levine SJ
Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. 2012 Jan 15;302(2):L206-15.
5A, an apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide, attenuates the induction of house dust mite-induced asthma.
Yao X, Dai C, Fredriksson K, Dagur PK, McCoy JP, Qu X, Yu ZX, Keeran KJ, Zywicke GJ, Amar MJ, Remaley AT, Levine SJ
J. Immunol. 2011 Jan 1;186(1):576-83.
Apolipoprotein E negatively regulates house dust mite-induced asthma via a low-density lipoprotein receptor-mediated pathway.
Yao X, Fredriksson K, Yu ZX, Xu X, Raghavachari N, Keeran KJ, Zywicke GJ, Kwak M, Amar MJ, Remaley AT, Levine SJ
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2010 Nov 15;182(10):1228-38.
Identification of ARTS-1 as a novel TNFR1-binding protein that promotes TNFR1 ectodomain shedding.
Cui X, Hawari F, Alsaaty S, Lawrence M, Combs CA, Geng W, Rouhani FN, Miskinis D, Levine SJ
J. Clin. Invest. 2002 Aug;110(4):515-26.
Stewart Levine's Full List of Publications