Workshop on Recruitment and Retention of African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Native Americans in Scientific Research Careers Relevant to Heart, Lung, Blood, and Sleep Disorders: Workshop Summary

Life Science Education and Employment: Minorities in the Pipeline

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SLIDE 1: Life Science Education and Employment: Minorities in the Pipeline
Nirmala Kannankutty
National Science Foundation
Division of Science Resources Studies

Workshop on Recruitment and Retention of Minorities
Bethesda, MD
May 24, 2001

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SLIDE 2: Goals

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SLIDE 3: Data on Minorities

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SLIDE 4: Undergraduate Enrollment by Race/Ethnicity: 1990-1996

  1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996
US citizens and permanent residents              
   White, non-Hispanic 9,273,439 9,508,527 9,388,226 9,101,085 8,916,770 8,806,202 8,731,457
   Asian 506,837 565,166 620,463 642,893 683,508 700,828 721,773
   Underrepresented minorities (total) 2,110,571 2,286,437 2,426,428 2,469,696 2,547,049 2,624,252 2,696,564
   African-American 1,148,979 1,231,252 1,282,732 1,292,621 1,319,684 1,336,052 1,354,910
   Hispanic 866,096 949,346 1,032,817 1,064,348 1,109,931 1,167,472 1,218,711
   American Indian/Alaska Native 95,496 105,839 110,879 112,727 117,434 120,728 122,943
Temporary residents 220,000 235,205 258,661 269,139 270,374 268,544 274,776

Source: Tabulations by National Science Foundation/Division of Science Resources Studies; data from U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System, Fall Enrollment Survey.

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SLIDE 5: Undergraduate Enrollment by Race/Ethnicity and Carnegie Classification: Fall 1996

  Research I Research II Doctorate Granting Comprehensive Engineering Liberal Arts 2-year institutions Other
Total enrollment by Carnegie Class (%) 11.7% 4.2% 7.6% 20.6% 0.4% 83.0% 44.1% 3.2%
White 12.0% 4.8% 7.8% 20.6% 0.4% 8.8% 42.5% 3.1%
Asian/Pacific Islander 21.4% 3.6% 6.6% 16.4% 0.4% 3.8% 45.4% 2.4%
African-American 7.4% 2.6% 7.3% 23.3% 0.3% 9.4% 46.2% 3.3%
Hispanic 7.6% 1.8% 6.2% 19.9% 0.6% 6.5% 53.8% 3.6%
American Indian/Alaskan Native 9.7% 4.5% 6.5% 18.1% 0.2% 5.3% 52.4% 3.2%

Source: Tabulations by National Science Foundation/Division of Science Resources Studies; data from U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System, Completions Survey.

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SLIDE 6: Graduate Enrollment at all Institutions in the Biological Sciences by Citzenship and Race/Ethnicity, 1982-1999

  1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Temporary residents 5,543 6,005 6,308 6,867 7,798 8,678 9,689 10,772 11,519 12,496 12,819 12,927 12,829 12,208 11,490 11,166 11,472 11,307
U.S. citizens and permanent residents 40,427 39,639 39,455 39,245 38,966 38,069 37,876 38,080 38,470 39,282 41,358 43,525 45,314 46,528 46,638 45,969 45,652 46,013
White 34,598 34,704 34,817 34,002 33,778 32,643 32,725 32,361 32,677 33,058 34,229 35,094 36,389 36,509 36,327 35,041 34,584 34,529
Asian/Pacific Islander 1,116 1,251 1,302 1,446 1,564 1,650 1,799 1,986 2,228 2,346 2,822 3,456 3,953 4,299 4,464 4,478 4,439 4,461
Other or unknown 2,688 1,496 1,252 1,591 1,466 1,599 979 1,236 954 1,058 1,214 1,432 1,429 1,813 1,790 2,098 2,215 2,397

SOURCE: National Science Foundation/Division of Science Resources Studies, Survey of Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering.

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SLIDE 7: Graduate Enrollment at all Institutions in the Biological Sciences of Minority Students by Race/Ethnicity, 1982-1999

  1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Asian/Pacific Islander 1,116 1,251 1,302 1,446 1,564 1,650 1,799 1,986 2,228 2,346 2,822 3,456 3,953 4,299 4,464 4,478 4,439 4,461
African-American 1,127 1,161 1,159 1,183 1,103 1,055 1,153 1,212 1,249 1,317 1,493 1,737 1,709 1,879 2,010 2,171 2,175 2,258
Hispanic 807 909 844 935 950 1,032 1,116 1,200 1,220 1,374 1,459 1,649 1,651 1,823 1,847 1,983 2,047 2,181
American Indian/Alaskan Native 91 118 81 88 105 90 104 85 142 129 141 157 183 205 200 198 192 187
Other or unknown 2,688 1,496 1,252 1,591 1,466 1,599 979 1,236 954 1,058 1,214 1,432 1,429 1,813 1,790 2,098 2,215 2,397

SOURCE: National Science Foundation/Division of Science Resources Studies, Survey of Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering.

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SLIDE 8: Underrepresented Minorities as a Proportion of All Individuals Who Earned Degrees in the Biological Sciences, by Degree Level, 1989-1997

  1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
Bachelor's 11.2% 11.2% 11.3% 11.5% 11.7% 11.7% 11.6% 12.3% 12.7%
Master's 5.4% 5.0% 6.0% 6.4% 6.5% 5.7% 6.4% 6.5% 7.2%
Doctorate 3.3% 3.3% 3.6% 3.7% 3.8% 4.3% 4.7% 4.4% 4.6%

Source: Tabulations by National Science Foundation/Division of Science Resources Studies: bachelors' and masters'data from U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System, Completions Survey; doctorate data from NSF/SRS Survey of Earned Doctorates.

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SLIDE 9: Underrepresented Minorities as a Proportion of All Individuals Who Earned Bachelors Degrees in the Biological Sciences, 1989-1997

  1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
African-American 5.2% 5.2% 5.2% 5.4% 5.7% 5.7% 5.7% 6.1% 6.3%
Hispanic 5.7% 5.6% 5.6% 5.7% 5.5% 5.6% 5.4% 5.7% 5.8%
American Indian/Alaskan Native 0.4% 0.3% 0.4% 0.4% 0.4% 0.5% 0.5% 0.5% 0.5%
Unknown, U.S. 1.7% 2.3% 2.3% 2.0% 1.8% 2.0% 2.2% 2.2% 2.3%
Temporary residents 2.4% 2.3% 2.6% 2.3% 2.5% 2.2% 2.3% 2.2% 2.2%

Source: Tabulations by National Science Foundation/Division of Science Resources Studies; data from U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System, Completions Survey.

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SLIDE 10: Underrepresented Minorities as a Proportion of All Individuals Who Earned Masters Degrees in the Biological Sciences, 1989-1997

  1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
African-American 2.5% 2.2% 2.9% 3.1% 2.8% 2.7% 3.0% 3.2% 3.6%
Hispanic 2.5% 2.5% 2.8% 3.0% 3.1% 2.6% 3.1% 3.1% 3.2%
American Indian/Alaskan Native 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.2% 0.5% 0.3% 0.4% 0.3% 0.4%
Unknown, U.S. 3.0% 4.0% 3.9% 4.1% 3.9% 3.9% 3.5% 3.6% 3.4%
Temporary residents 12.8% 14.9% 15.6% 16.5% 17.7% 17.9% 16.2% 15.7% 14.0%

Source: Tabulations by National Science Foundation/Division of Science Resources Studies; data from U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System, Completions Survey.

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SLIDE 11: Underrepresented Minorities as a Proportion of All Individuals Who Earned Doctoral Degrees in the Biological Sciences, 1989-1997

  1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
African-American 1.4% 1.2% 1.4% 1.3% 1.5% 1.5% 2.0% 1.7% 1.9%
Hispanic 1.7% 2.1% 2.0% 2.1% 2.2% 2.5% 2.4% 2.3% 2.5%
American Indian/Alaskan Native 0.2% 0.1% 0.2% 0.3% 0.1% 0.3% 0.3% 0.4% 0.2%
Unknown, U.S. 1.5% 1.4% 1.2% 1.1% 0.8% 0.7% 0.7% 1.0% 1.9%
Temporary residents 14.8% 19.7% 22.8% 24.2% 24.5% 20.3% 18.0% 21.7% 21.1%

Source: Tabulations by National Science Foundation/Division of Science Resources Studies; data from NSF/SRS Survey of Earned Doctorates

SLIDE 12: Top Fields for Underrepresented Minority Doctorate Earners in the Biological Sciences (1999)

  Total Underrepresented Minorities
All Biological Science Fields 5,600 300
Molecular Biology 719 39
Neuroscience 437 31
Biochemistry 763 27
Microbiology 382 20
Pharmacology (human & animal) 254 18
Physiology (human & animal) 243 15
Cell Biology 285 14

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SLIDE 13: Life Science Degree Holders in the Labor Force (1997)

Source: NSF/SRS, Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System (SESTAT), 1997

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SLIDE 14: Occupational Profile of Life Science Degree Holders (1997)

  All Life Science Degree Holders Underrepresented Minorities
Non-S&E Occs 78.5% 85.2%
Computer and Math Scientists 2.0% 1.5%
Life Scientists 14.4% 10.1%
Physical Scientists 2.5% 1.8%
Social Scientists 0.7% 0.6%
Engineers 1.9% 0.9%

Source: NSF/SRS, Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System (SESTAT), 1997

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SLIDE 15: Life Science Degree Holders in Non-S&E Occupation (1997)

  All Life Science Degree Holders (N=1,400,000) Underrepresented Minorities (N=121,000)
Other Non-S&E Occs 15.0% 14.6%
Non-S&E postsecondary teachers 1.1% 1.4%
Social services occupations 1.1% 2.7%
Arts & Humanities Occupations 1.2% 0.7%
Technologists & Technicians 3.5% 5.4%
Teachers, except S&E postsecondary 7.6% 11.1%
Sales & marketing occupations 8.3% 6.8%
Managers and Administrators 13.7% 12.1%
Health-related Occupations 27.1% 30.3%

Source: Tabulations by National Science Foundation/Division of Science Resources Studies; data from Scientists and Engineering Statistical Data System (SESTAT), 1997

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SLIDE 16: The Pipeline Picture - Education

Trends Possible Implications
Higher Undergraduate URM Enrollments Potential for Growth in Graduate Enrollments of URM Students
Some Growth in Graduate URM Enrollments More Diversity in the Educational Pipeline
Stable Proportion of Biological Science Degrees Awarded to URM Students in the 1990s Potential for Growth in Programs to Attract Minority Students

SLIDE 17: The Pipeline Picture - Workforce

Trends Possible Implications
Higher proportion of employed life science degree holders are from URM groups than all S&Es Bio degree programs may be attracting URM students with more success than some other types of S&E degree programs
Employed life science degree holders who are from URM groups are more likely to be in Non-S&E Occs Potential to attract URM individuals educated in the life sciences to Life Science Occupations

SLIDE 18: Data Resources

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