Physical activity has many health benefits. These benefits apply to people of all ages and races and both sexes.
For example, physical activity helps you maintain a healthy weight and makes it easier to do daily tasks, such as climbing stairs and shopping.
Physically active adults are at lower risk for depression and declines in cognitive function as they get older. (Cognitive function includes thinking, learning, and judgment skills.) Physically active children and teens may have fewer symptoms of depression than their peers.
Physical activity also lowers your risk for many diseases, such as coronary heart disease (CHD), diabetes, and cancer.
Many studies have shown the clear benefits of physical activity for your heart and lungs.
Physical Activity Strengthens Your Heart and Improves Lung Function
When done regularly, moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity strengthens your heart muscle. This improves your heart's ability to pump blood to your lungs and throughout your body. As a result, more blood flows to your muscles, and oxygen levels in your blood rise.
Capillaries, your body's tiny blood vessels, also widen. This allows them to deliver more oxygen to your body and carry away waste products.
Physical Activity Reduces Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors
When done regularly, moderate- and vigorous-intensity aerobic activity can lower your risk for CHD. CHD is a condition in which a waxy substance called plaque (plak) builds up inside your coronary arteries. These arteries supply your heart muscle with oxygen-rich blood.
Plaque narrows the arteries and reduces blood flow to your heart muscle. Eventually, an area of plaque can rupture (break open). This causes a blood clot to form on the surface of the plaque.
If the clot becomes large enough, it can mostly or completely block blood flow through a coronary artery. Blocked blood flow to the heart muscle causes a heart attack.
Certain traits, conditions, or habits may raise your risk for CHD. Physical activity can help control some of these risk factors because it:
- Can lower blood pressure and triglyceride (tri-GLIS-er-ide) levels. Triglycerides are a type of fat in the blood.
- Can raise HDL cholesterol levels. HDL sometimes is called “good” cholesterol.
- Helps your body manage blood sugar and insulin levels, which lowers your risk for type 2 diabetes.
- Reduces levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) in your body. This protein is a sign of inflammation. High levels of CRP may suggest an increased risk for CHD.
- Helps reduce overweight and obesity when combined with a reduced-calorie diet. Physical activity also helps you maintain a healthy weight over time once you have lost weight.
- May help you quit smoking. Smoking is a major risk factor for CHD.
Inactive people are nearly twice as likely to develop CHD as people who are physically active. Studies suggest that inactivity is a major risk factor for CHD, just like high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, and smoking.
Physical Activity Reduces Heart Attack Risk
For people who have CHD, aerobic activity done regularly helps the heart work better. It also may reduce the risk of a second heart attack in people who already have had heart attacks.
Vigorous aerobic activity may not be safe for people who have CHD. Ask your doctor what types of activity are safe for you.