1.c. Abdominal Fat
Rationale: Five RCTs (365, 369, 373, 375, 377) testing the effects of weight loss on blood pressure also measured abdominal fat by waist circumference or by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In all five studies, waist circumference was reduced along with weight, and blood pressure was decreased. These studies were not designed to test whether reduction in abdominal fat reduces blood pressure independent of weight loss.