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676. Collins RW, Anderson JW. Medication cost savings associated with weight loss for obese non-insulin-dependent diabetic men and women. Prev Med. 1995;24:369-374.

677. Darne B, Nivarong M, Tugaye A, et al. Hypocaloric diet and antihypertensive drug treatment. A randomized controlled clinical trial. Blood Press. 1993;2:130-135.

678. Gillett PA, Eisenman PA. The effect of intensity controlled aerobic dance exercise on aerobic capacity of middle-aged, overweight women. Res Nurs Health. 1987;10:383-390.

679. The treatment of mild hypertension study. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of a nutritional-hygienic regimen along with various drug monotherapies. Arch Intern Med. 1991;151:1413-1423.

680. Jeffery RW, Gillum R, Gerber WM, Jacobs D, Elmer PJ, Prineas RJ. Weight and sodium reduction for the prevention of hypertension: a comparison of group treatment and individual counseling. Am J Public Health. 1983;73:691-693.

681. Kanaley JA, Andresen-Reid ML, Oenning L, Kottke BA, Jensen MD. Differential health benefits of weight loss in upper-body and lower-body obese women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1993;57:20-26.

682. Kumanyika SK. The impact of obesity on hypertension management in African Americans. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 1997;8:352-364.

683. Mellies MJ, Vitale C, Jandacek RJ, Lamkin GE, Glueck CJ. The substitution of sucrose polyester for dietary fat in obese, hypercholesterolemic outpatients. Am J Clin Nutr. 1985;41:1-12.

684. Page RC, Harnden KE, Cook JT, Turner RC. Can lifestyles of subjects with impaired glucose tolerance be changed? A feasibility study. Diabet Med. 1992;9:562-566.

685. Ready AE, Drinkwater DT, Ducas J, Fitzpatrick DW, Brereton DG, Oades SC. Walking program reduces elevated cholesterol in women postmenopause. Can J Cardiol. 1995;11:905-912.

686. Rigaud D, Ryttig KR, Angel LA, Apfelbaum M. Overweight treated with energy restriction and a dietary fibre supplement: a 6-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Int J Obes. 1990;14:763-769.

687. Rissanen A, Pietinen P, Siljamaki-Ojansuu U, Piirainen H, Reissel P. Treatment of hypertension in obese patients: efficacy and feasibility of weight and salt reduction programs. Acta Med Scand. 1985;218:149-156.

688. Ryttig KR, Rossner S. Weight maintenance after a very low calorie diet (VLCD) weight reduction period and the effects of VLCD supplementation. A prospective, randomized, comparative, controlled long-term trial. J Intern Med. 1995;238:299-306.

689. Singh RB, Niaz MA, Bishnoi I, Singh U,Begum R, Rastogi SS. Effect of low energy diet and weight loss on major risk factors, central obesity and associated disturbances in patients with essential hypertension. J Hum Hypertens. 1995;9:355-362.

690. Singh RB, Niaz MA, Ghosh S. Effect on central obesity and associated disturbances of low-energy, fruit- and vegetable-enriched prudent diet in north Indians. Postgrad Med J. 1994;70:895-900.

691. Singh RB, Rastogi SS, Sircar AR, Mehta PJ, Sharma KK. Dietary strategies for risk-factor modification to prevent cardiovascular diseases. Nutrition. 1991;7:210-214.

692. Stokholm KH, Nielsen PE, Quaade F. Correlation between initial blood pressure and blood pressure decrease after weight loss: a study in patients with jejunoileal bypass versus medical treatment for morbid obesity. Int J Obes. 1982;6:307-312.

693. Walker KZ, O'Dea K, Nicholson GC, Muir JG. Dietary composition, body weight, and NIDDM. Comparison of high-fiber, high-carbohydrate, and modified-fat diets. Diabetes Care. 1995;18:401-403.

694. Wing RR, Jeffery RW, Burton LR, Thorson C, Kuller LH, Folsom AR. Change in waist-hip ratio with weight loss and its association with change in cardiovascular risk factors. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;55:1086-1092.

695. Astrup A, Breum L, Toubro S, Hein P, Quaade F. The effect and safety of an ephedrine/caffeine compound compared to ephedrine, caffeine and placebo in obese subjects on an energy-restricted diet. A double blind trial. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1992;16:269-277.

696. Connacher AA, Jung RT, Mitchell PE. Weight loss in obese subjects on a restricted diet given BRL 26830A, a new atypical beta adrenoreceptor agonist. BMJ (Clin Res Ed). 1988;296:1217-1220.

697. Daly PA, Krieger DR, Dulloo AG, Young JB, Landsberg L. Ephedrine, caffeine and aspirin: safety and efficacy for treatment of human obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1993;17 (Suppl 1):S73-S78.

698. Marin P, Holmang S, Jonsson L, et al. The effects of testosterone treatment on body composition and metabolism in middle-aged obese men. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1992;16:991-997.

699. Rasmussen MH, Andersen T, Breum L, Gotzsche PC, Hilsted J. Cimetidine suspension as adjuvant to energy restricted diet in treating obesity. BMJ. 1993;306:1093-1096.

700. Coon PJ, Bleecker ER, Drinkwater DT, Meyers DA, Goldberg AP. Effects of body composition and exercise capacity on glucose tolerance, insulin, and lipoprotein lipids in healthy older men: a cross-sectional and longitudinal intervention study. Metabolism. 1989;38:1201-1209.

701. Franz MJ, Monk A, Barry B, et al. Effectiveness of medical nutrition therapy provided by dietitians in the management of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: a randomized, controlled clinical trial. J Am Diet Assoc. 1995;95:1009-1017.

702. Milne RM, Mann JI, Chisholm AW, Williams SM. Long-term comparison of three dietary prescriptions in the treatment of NIDDM. Diabetes Care. 1994;17:74-80.

703. Ready AE, Fitzpatrick DW, Boreskie SL, Hrycaiko DW. The response of obese females to low impact exercise and diet counselling. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 1991;31:587-595.

704. Singman HS, Berman SN, Cowell C, Maslansky E, Archer M. The Anti-Coronary Club: 1957 to 1972. Am J Clin Nutr. 1980;33:1183-1191.

705. Suter E, Marti B, Gutzwiller F. Jogging or walking comparison of health effects. Ann Epidemiol. 1994;4:375-381.

706. Viddal KO. Intestinal bypass. A randomized, prospective clinical study of end-to-side and end-to-end jejunoileal bypass. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1983;18:627-634.

707. Williams PT, Wood PD, Haskell WL, Vranizan K. The effects of running mileage and duration on plasma lipoprotein levels. JAMA. 1982;247:2674-2679.

708. Wing RR, Marcus MD, Salata R, Epstein LH, Miaskiewicz S, Blair EH. Effects of a very low-calorie diet on long-term glycemic control in obese Type 2 diabetic subjects. Arch Intern Med. 1991;151:1334-1340.

709. Wing RR, Blair E, Marcus M, Epstein LH, Harvey J. Year-long weight loss treatment for obese patients with type II diabetes: does including an intermittent very low-calorie diet improve outcome? Am J Med. 1994;97:354-362.

710. Drent ML, Larsson I, William-Olsson T, et al. Orlistat (Ro 18-0647), a lipase inhibitor, in the treatment of human obesity: a multiple dose study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1995;19:221-226.

711. Pedrinola F, Sztejnsznajd C, Lima N, Halpern A, Medeiros-Neto G. The addition of dexfenfluramine to fluoxetine in the treatment of obesity: a randomized clinical trial. Obes Res. 1996;4:549-554.

712. Connolly VM, Gallagher A, Kesson CM. A study of fluoxetine in obese elderly patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabet Med. 1995;12:416-418.

713. Alpert MA, Terry BE, Lambert CR, et al. Factors influencing left ventricular systolic function in nonhypertensive morbidly obese patients, and effect of weight loss induced by gastroplasty. Am J Cardiol. 1993;71:733-737.

714. Cairella G, Cairella M, Marchini G. Effect of dietary fiber on weight correction after modified fasting. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1995;49 (Suppl 3):S325-S327.

715. Foster GD, Wadden TA, Peterson FJ, Letizia KA, Bartlett SJ, Conill AM. A controlled comparison of three very low-calorie diets: effects on weight, body composition, and symptoms. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;55:811-817.

716. Hakala P. Weight reduction programmes at a rehabilitation centre and a health centre based on group counselling and individual support: short- and long-term follow-up study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1994;18:483-489.

717. Han TS, Richmond P, Avenell A, Lean ME. Waist circumference reduction and cardiovascular benefits during weight loss in women. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1997;21:127-134.

718. Lean ME, Han TS, Prvan T, Richmond PR, Avenell A. Weight loss with high and low carbohydrate 1200 kcal diets in free living women. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1997;51:243-248.

719. Miura J, Arai K, Tsukahara S, Ohno M,  Ikeda Y. The long-term effectiveness of combined therapy by behavior modification and very low-calorie diet: 2 years follow up. Int J Obes. 1989;13 (Suppl 2):73-77.

720. Walker KZ, O'Dea K, Johnson L, et al. Body fat distribution and non-insulin-dependent diabetes: comparison of a fiber-rich, high-carbohydrate, low-fat (23%) diet and a 35% fat diet high in monounsaturated fat. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996;63:254-260.

721. Foster GD, Wadden TA, Feurer ID, et al. Controlled trial of the metabolic effects of a very low-calorie diet: short- and long-term effects. Am J Clin Nutr. 1990;51:167-172.

722. Golay A, Allaz AF, Morel Y, de Tonnac N, Tankova S, Reaven G. Similar weight loss with low- or high-carbohydrate diets. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996; 63:174-178.

723. Rossner S, Flaten H. VLCD versus LCD in long-term treatment of obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1997; 21:22-26.

724. Jarrett RJ, Keen H, Murrells T. Changes in blood pressure and body weight over ten years in men selected for glucose intolerance. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1987; 41:145-151.

725. Gwinup G. Weight loss without dietary restriction: efficacy of different forms of aerobic exercise. Am J Sports Med. 1987; 15:275-279.

726. Hespel P, Lijnen P, Van Hoof R, et al. Effects of physical endurance training on the plasma renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in normal man. J Endocrinol. 1988;116:443-449.

727. King AC, Taylor CB, Haskell WL, DeBusk RF. Influence of regular aerobic exercise on psychological health: a randomized, controlled trial of healthy middle-aged adults. Health Psychol. 1989;8:305-324.

728. Karvetti RL, Knuts LR. Effects of comprehensive rehabilitation on weight reduction in myocardial infarction patients. Scand J Rehabil Med. 1983;15:11-16.

729. Liao Y, Emidy LA, Gosch FC, Stamler R, Stamler J. Cardiovascular responses to exercise of participants in a trial on the primary prevention of hypertension. J Hypertens. 1987;5:317-321.

730. Darga LL, Carroll-Michals L, Botsford SJ, Lucas CP. Fluoxetine's effect on weight loss in obese subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;54:321-325.

731. Elmer PJ, Grimm R Jr, Laing B, et al. Lifestyle intervention: results of the Treatment of Mild Hypertension Study (TOMHS). Prev Med. 1995;24:378-388.

732. Foreyt JP, Ramirez AG, Cousins JH. Cuidando El Corazona weight-reduction intervention for Mexican Americans. Am J  Clin Nutr. 1991;53:1639S-1641S.

733. Hogan RB, Johnston JH, Long BW, et al. A double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled trial of the gastric bubble for obesity. Gastrointest Endosc. 1989;35:381-385.

734. Marcus MD, Wing RR, Ewing L, Kern E, McDermott M, Gooding W. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of fluoxetine plus behavior modification in the treatment of obese binge-eaters and non-binge-eaters. Am J Psychiatry. 1990;147:876-881.

735. Stamler J, Briefel RR, Milas C, Grandits GA, Caggiula AW. Relation of changes in dietary lipids and weight, trial years 1-6, to changes in blood lipids in the special intervention and usual care groups in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;65:272S-288S.

736. Wing RR, Shoemaker M, Marcus MD, McDermott M, Gooding W. Variables associated with weight loss and improvements in glycemic control in type II diabetic patients in behavioral weight control programs. Int J Obes. 1990;14:495-503.

737. DeLucia JL, Kalodner CR, Horan JJ. The effect of two nutritional software programs used as adjuncts to the behavioral treatment of obesity. J Subst Abuse. 1988-1989;1:203-208.

738. DeLucia JL, Kalodner CR. An individualized cognitive intervention: does it increase the efficacy of behavioral interventions for obesity? Addict Behav. 1990;15:473-479.

739. Heitzmann CA, Kaplan RM, Wilson DK,  Sandler J. Sex differences in weight loss among adults with type II diabetes mellitus. J Behav Med. 1987;10:197-211.

740. Jeffery RW, Forster JL, French SA, et al. The Healthy Worker Project: a work-site intervention for weight control and smoking cessation. Am J Public Health. 1993;83:395-401.

741. Jeffery RW, Forster JL, Snell MK. Promoting weight control at the worksite: a pilot program of self-motivation using payroll-based incentives. Prev Med. 1985;14:187-194.

742. Jones SE, Owens HM, Bennett GA. Does behaviour therapy work for dietitians? An experimental evaluation of the effects of three procedures in a weight reduction clinic. Hum Nutr Appl Nutr. 1986;40:272-281.

743. Kalodner CR, DeLucia JL. The individual and combined effects of cognitive therapy and nutrition education as additions to a behavior modification program for weight loss. Addict Behav. 1991;16:255-263.

744. Schwartz SH, Inbar-Saban N. Value self-confrontation as a method to aid in weight loss. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1988;54:396-404.

745. Breum L, Astrup A, Andersen T, et al. The effect of long-term dexfenfluramine treatment on 24-hour energy expenditure in man. A double-blind placebo controlled study. Int J Obes. 1990;14:613-621.

746. Finer N, Finer S, Naoumova RP. Drug therapy after very-low-calorie diets. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;56:195S-198S.

747. Pasquali R, Cesari MP, Melchionda N, Stefanini C, Raitano A, Labo G. Does ephedrine promote weight loss in low-energy-adapted obese women? Int J Obes. 1987;11:163-168.

748. Weintraub M, Hasday JD, Mushlin AI, Lockwood DH. A double-blind clinical trial in weight control. Use of fenfluramine and phentermine alone and in combination. Arch Intern Med. 1984;144:1143-1148.

749. Weintraub M, Sundaresan PR, Schuster B, et al. Long-term weight control study. II (weeks 34 to 104). An open-label study of continuous fenfluramine plus phentermine versus targeted intermittent medication as adjuncts to behavior modification, caloric restriction, and exercise. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1992;51:595-601.

750. Bitsch M, Skrumsager BK. Femoxetine in the treatment of obese patients in general practice. A randomized group comparative study with placebo. Int J Obes. 1987;11:183-190.

751. Fernandez-Soto ML, Gonzalez-Jimenez A, Barredo-Acedo F, Luna del Castillo JD, Escobar-Jimenez F. Comparison of fluoxetine and placebo in the treatment of obesity. Ann Nutr Metab. 1995;39:159-163.

752. Goldstein DJ, Rampey AH Jr, Enas GG, Potvin JH, Fludzinski LA, Levine LR. Fluoxetine: a randomized clinical trial in the treatment of obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1994;18:129-135.

753. Cook RF, Howard AN, Mills IH. Low-dose mianserin as adjuvant therapy in obese patients treated by a very-low-calorie diet. Int J Obes. 1981;5:267-272.

754. Steel JM, Munro JF, Duncan LJ. A comparative trial of different regimens of fenfluramine and phentermine in obesity. Practitioner. 1973;211:232-236.

755. Sax L. Yohimbine does not affect fat distribution in men. Int J Obes. 1991;15:561-565.

756. Benjamin SB, Maher KA, Cattau EL Jr, et al. Double-blind controlled trial of the Garren-Edwards gastric bubble: an adjunctive treatment for exogenous obesity. Gastroenterology. 1988;95:581-588.

757. Mathus-Vliegen EM, Tytgat GN, Veldhuyzen-Offermans EA. Intragastric balloon in the treatment of super-morbid obesity. Double-blind, sham-controlled, crossover evaluation of 500-milliliter balloon. Gastroenterology. 1990;99:362-369.

758. Bray GA, Gray DS. Obesity. Part I Pathogenesis. West J Med. 1988;149:429-441.

759. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Number and percentage of children and adolescents who were overweight by gender and race/ethnicity: United States NHANES III, 1988-1994. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1997.

760. National Center of Health Statistics. Centers for Disease Prevention and Control, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Phase III. Prevalence of overweight in U.S. adults, by race/ethnicity, gender, and education, 1988-1991.

761. Centers for Disease Control. Cardiac valvulopathy associated with exposure to Fenfluramine or Dexfenfluramine: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services interim public health recommendation, November 1997. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1997;46:1061-1065.

762. American Psychiatric Association. Task Force on DSM-IV, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders : DSM-IV. 4th ed. Washington, DC: The Association; 1994.

763. Landin K, Stigendal L, Eriksson E, et al. Abdominal obesity is associated with an impaired fibrinolytic activity and elevated plasminogen activator inhibitor-I. Metabolism. 1990;39:1044-1048.

764. Reisin E, Frohlich ED, Messerli FH, Dreslinski GR, et al. Cardiovascular changes after weight reduction in obesity hypertension. Ann Intern Med. 1983;98: 315-319.

765. Tuck MI, Sowers J, Dornfield L, et al. The effect of weight reduction on blood pressure plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone level in obese patients. N Engl J Med. 1981;304:930-933.

766. Rocchini AP, Key J, Bondie D, et al. The effect of weight loss on the sensitivity of blood pressure to sodium in obese adolescents. N Engl J Med. 1989;321:580-585.

767. Landsberg L, Krieger DR, Obesity, metabolism and the sympathetic nervous system. Am J Hypertension. 1989;2:125S-132S.

768. Jacobs DB, Sowers JR, et al. Effects of weight reduction on cellular cation metabolism and vascular resistance. Hypertension. 1993;21:308-314.

769. Frohlich ED, Apstein C, Chobanian AV, et al. The heart in hypertension. N Engl J Med. 1992;327:998-1008.

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