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436. Wadden TA, Sternberg JA, Letizia KA, Stunkard AJ, Foster GD. Treatment of obesity by very low calorie diet, behavior therapy, and their combination: a five-year perspective. Int J Obes. 1989;13 (Suppl 2):39-46.

437. Wadden TA, Foster GD, Letizia KA. One-year behavioral treatment of obesity: comparison of moderate and severe caloric restriction and the effects of weight maintenance therapy. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1994;62:165-171.

438. Wadden TA, Foster GD, Letizia KA, Mullen JL. Long-term effects of dieting on resting metabolic rate in obese outpatients. JAMA. 1990;264:707-711.

439. Wing RR, Blair EH, Bononi P, Marcus MD, Watanabe R, Bergman RN. Caloric restriction per se is a significant factor in improvements in glycemic control and insulin sensitivity during weight loss in obese NIDDM patients. Diabetes Care. 1994;17:30-36.

440. de Bont AJ, Baker IA, St. Leger AS, et al. A randomised controlled trial of the effect of low-fat diet advice on dietary response in insulin-independent diabetic women. Diabetologia. 1981;21:529-533.

441. Jeffery RW, Hellerstedt WL, French SA, Baxter JE. A randomized trial of counseling for fat restriction versus calorie restriction in the treatment of obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1995;19:132-137.

442. Schlundt DG, Hill JO, Pope-Cordle J, Arnold D, Virts KL, Katahn M. Randomized evaluation of a low fat ad libitum carbohydrate diet for weight reduction. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1993;17:623-629.

443. Shah M, McGovern P, French S, Baxter J. Comparison of a low-fat, ad libitum complex-carbohydrate diet with a low-energy diet in moderately obese women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;59:980-984.

444. Sheppard L, Kristal AR, Kushi LH. Weight loss in women participating in a randomized trial of low-fat diets. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;54:821-828.

445. Bertram SR, Venter I, Stewart RI. Weight loss in obese women--exercise vs. dietary education. S Afr Med J. 1990;78:15-18.

446. Verity LS, Ismail AH. Effects of exercise on cardiovascular disease risk in women with NIDDM. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1989;6:27-35.

447. King AC, Haskell WL, Young DR, Oka RK, Stefanick ML. Long-term effects of varying intensities and formats of physical activity on participation rates, fitness, and lipoproteins in men and women aged 50 to 65 years. Circulation. 1995;91:2596-2604.

448. Gordon NF, Scott CB, Levine BD. Comparison of single versus multiple lifestyle interventions: are the antihypertensive effects of exercise training and diet-induced weight loss additive? Am J Cardiol. 1997;79:763-767.

449. Garrow JS, Summerbell CD. Meta-analysis: effect of exercise, with or without dieting, on the body composition of overweight subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1995;49:1-10.

450. Miller WC, Lindeman AK, Wallace J, Niederpruem M. Diet composition, energy intake, and exercise in relation to body fat in men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1990; 52:426-430.

451. Fitzgerald SJ, Kriska AM, Pereira MA, de Courten MP. Associations among physical activity, television watching, and obesity in adult Pima Indians. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1997;29:910-915.

452. Klesges RC, Eck LH, Isbell TR, Fulliton W, Hanson CL. Physical activity, body composition, and blood pressure: a multi-method approach. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1991;23:759-765.

453. Tremblay A, Despres JP, Leblanc C, et al. Effect of intensity of physical activity on body fatness and fat distribution. Am J Clin Nutr. 1990;51:153-157.

454. French SA, Jeffery RW, Forster JL, McGovern PG, Kelder SH, Baxter JE. Predictors of weight change over two years among a population of working adults: the Healthy Worker Project. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1994;18:145-154.

455. Williams PT. Evidence for the incompatibility of age-neutral overweight and age-neutral physical activity standards from runners. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;65:1391-1396.

456. Ewbank PP, Darga LL, Lucas CP. Physical activity as a predictor of weight maintenance in previously obese subjects. Obes Res. 1995;3:257-263.

457. Klesges RC, Klesges LM, Haddock CK, Eck LH. A longitudinal analysis of the impact of dietary intake and physical activity on weight change in adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;55:818-822.

458. Ching PL, Willett WC, Rimm EB, Colditz GA, Gortmaker SL, Stampfer MJ. Activity level and risk of overweight in male health professionals. Am J Public Health. 1996;86:25-30.

459. Williamson DF, Madans J, Anda RF, Kleinman JC, Kahn HS, Byers T. Recreational physical activity and ten-year weight change in a US national cohort. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1993;17:279-286.

460. Kawachi I, Troisi RJ, Rotnitzky AG, Coakley EH, Colditz GA. Can physical activity minimize weight gain in women after smoking cessation? Am J Public Health. 1996;86:999-1004.

461. Bild DE, Sholinsky P, Smith DE, Lewis CE, Hardin JM, Burke GL. Correlates and predictors of weight loss in young adults: the CARDIA study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1996;20:47-55.

462. Kayman S, Bruvold W, Stern JS. Maintenance and relapse after weight loss in women: behavioral aspects. Am J Clin Nutr. 1990;52:800-807.

463. Grodstein F, Levine R, Troy L, Spencer T, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ. Three-year follow-up of participants in a commercial weight loss program. Can you keep it off? Arch Intern Med. 1996;156:1302-1306.

464. Seidell JC. Environmental influences on regional fat distribution. Int J Obes.1991;15:31-35.

465. Kaye SA, Folsom AR, Prineas RJ, Potter JD, Gapstur SM. The association of body fat distribution with lifestyle and reproductive factors in a population study of post-menopausal women. Int J Obes. 1990;14:583-591.

466. Slattery ML, McDonald A, Bild DE, et al. Associations of body fat and its distribution with dietary intake, physical activity, alcohol, and smoking in blacks and whites. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;55:943-949.

467. Troisi RJ, Heinold JW, Vokonas PS, Weiss ST. Cigarette smoking, dietary intake, and physical activity: effects on body fat distribution--the Normative Aging Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;53:1104-1111.

468. Wing RR, Matthews KA, Kuller LH, Meilahn EN, Plantinga P. Waist-to-hip ratio in middle-aged women. Associations with behavioral and psychological factors and with changes in cardiovascular risk factors. Arterioscler Throm. 1991;11:1250-1257.

469. Andersen RE, Wadden TA, Bartlett SJ, Vogt RA, Weinstock RS. Relation of weight loss to changes in serum lipids and lipoproteins in obese women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;62:350-357.

470. Blonk MC, Jacobs MA, Biesheuvel EH, Weeda-Mannak WL, Heine RJ. Influences on weight loss in type 2 diabetic patients: little long-term benefit from group behaviour therapy and exercise training. Diabet Med. 1994;11:449-457.

471. Neumark-Sztainer D, Kaufmann NA, Berry EM. Physical activity within a community-based weight control program: program evaluation and predictors of success. Public Health Rev. 1995;23:237-251.

472. Sweeney ME, Hill JO, Heller PA, Baney R, DiGirolamo M. Severe vs moderate energy restriction with and without exercise in the treatment of obesity: efficiency of weight loss. Am J Clin Nutr. 1993;57:127-134.

473. Wing RR, Epstein LH, Paternostro-Bayles M, Kriska A, Nowalk MP, Gooding W. Exercise in a behavioural weight control programme for obese patients with Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes. Diabetologia. 1988;31:902-909.

474. Kaplan RM, Hartwell SL, Wilson DK, Wallace JP. Effects of diet and exercise interventions on control and quality of life in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Gen Intern Med. 1987;2:220-228.

475. Leighton RF, Repka FJ, Birk TJ, et al. The Toledo Exercise and Diet Study. Results at 26 weeks. Arch Intern Med. 1990;150:1016- 1020.

476. Long CG, Simpson CM, Allott EA. Psychological and dietetic counselling combined in the treatment of obesity: a comparative study in a hospital outpatient clinic. Hum Nutr Appl Nutr. 1983;37:94-102.

477. Wadden TA, Stunkard AJ. Controlled trial of very low calorie diet, behavior therapy, and their combination in the treatment of obesity. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1986; 54:482-488.

478. Craighead LW, Stunkard AJ, O'Brien RM. Behavior therapy and pharmacotherapy for obesity. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1981;38:763-768.

479. Bennett GA. An evaluation of self-instructional training in the treatment of obesity. Addict Behav. 1986;11:125-134.

480. Bennett GA. Cognitive rehearsal in the treatment of obesity: a comparison against cue avoidance and social pressure. Addict Behav. 1986;11:225-237.

481. Forster JL, Jeffery RW, Sullivan S, Snell MK. A work-site weight control program using financial incentives collected through payroll deduction. J Occup Med. 1985;27:804-808.

482. Glasgow RE, Toobert DJ, Hampson SE, Brown JE, Lewinsohn PM, Donnelly J. Improving self-care among older patients with type II diabetes: the Sixty Something... Study. Patient Educ Couns. 1992;19:61-74.

483. Jeffery RW, Hellerstedt WL, Schmid TL. Correspondence programs for smoking cessation and weight control: a comparison of two strategies in the Minnesota Heart Health Program. Health Psychol. 1990;9:585-598. 

484. Lovibond SH, Birrell PC, Langeluddecke P. Changing coronary heart disease risk-factor status: the effects of three behavioral programs. J Behav Med. 1986;9:415-437.

485. Muchmore DB, Springer J, Miller M. Self-monitoring of blood glucose in overweight type 2 diabetic patients. Acta Diabetol. 1994;31:215-219.

486. Perri MG, Nezu AM, Patti ET, McCann KL. Effect of length of treatment on weight loss. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1989;57:450-452.

487. Perri MG, McAllister DA, Gange JJ, Jordan RC, McAdoo G, Nezu AM. Effects of four maintenance programs on the long-term management of obesity. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1988;56:529-534.

488. Rosenthal B, Allen GJ, Winter C. Husband involvement in the behavioral treatment of overweight women: initial effects and long-term follow-up. Int J Obes. 1980;4:165-173.

489. Smith DE, Heckemeyer CM, Kratt PP, Mason DA. Motivational interviewing to improve adherence to a behavioral weight-control program for older obese women with NIDDM. A pilot study. Diabetes Care. 1997;20:52-54.

490. Uusitupa M, Laitinen J, Siitonen O, Vanninen E, Pyorala K. The maintenance of improved metabolic control after intensified diet therapy in recent type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1993;19:227-238.

491. Wadden TA, Berkowitz RI, Vogt RA, Steen SN, Stunkard AJ, Foster GD. Lifestyle modification in the pharmacologic treatment of obesity: a pilot investigation of a potential primary care approach. Obes Res. 1997;5:218-226.

492. Wing RR, Marcus MD, Epstein LH, Jawad A. A "family-based" approach to the treatment of obese Type II diabetic patients. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1991;59:156-162.

493. Wing RR, Epstein LH, Nowalk MP, Scott  N, Koeske R, Hagg S. Does self-monitoring of blood glucose levels improve dietary compliance for obese patients with Type II diabetes? Am J Med. 1986;81:830-836.

494. Eldredge KL, Agras WS, Arnow B, et al. The effects of extending cognitive-behavioral therapy for binge eating disorder among initial treatment nonresponders. Int J Eat Disord. 1997;21:347-352.

495. Agras WS, Berkowitz RI, Arnow BA, et al. Maintenance following a very-low-calorie diet. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1996;64:610-613.

496. Sobal J, Devin C. Social aspects of obesity. In: Dalton S, ed. Overweight and Weight Management: The Health Professional's Guide to Understanding and Practice. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen Publishers; 1997:312-331.

497. Brown PJ; Cultural perspectives on the etiology and treatment of obesity. In: Stunkard AJ, Wadden TA, eds. Obesity Theory and Therapy. New York: Raven Press; 1993:179-195.

498. Foster GD, Wadden TA, Vogt RA. Resting energy expenditure in obese African American and Caucasian women. Obes Res. 1997;5:1-8.

499. Yanovski SZ, Reynolds JC, Boyle AJ, Yanovski JA. Resting metabolic rate in African-American and Caucasian girls. Obes Res. 1997;5:321-325.

500. Albu JB, Murphy L, Frager DH, Johnson JA, Pi-Sunyer FX. Visceral fat and race-dependent health risks in obese nondiabetic premenopausal women. Diabetes. 1997;46:456-462.

501. Allison DB, Edlen-Nezin L, Clay-Williams G. Obesity among African American women: prevalence, consequences, causes, and developing research. Women's Health. 1997;3:243-274.

502. Andersson B, Seidell J, Terning K, Bjorntorp P. Influence of menopause on dietary treatment of obesity. J Intern Med. 1990;227:173-181.

503. Kumanyika SK, Obarzanek E, Stevens VJ, Hebert PR, Whelton PK. Weight-loss experience of black and white participants in NHLBI-sponsored clinical trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;53:1631S-1638S.

504. Wing RR, Anglin K. Effectiveness of a behavioral weight control program for blacks and whites with NIDDM. Diabetes Care. 1996;19:409-413.

505. Wylie-Rosett J, Wassertheil-Smoller S, Blaufox MD, et al. Trial of antihypertensive intervention and management: greater efficacy with weight reduction than with a sodium-potassium intervention. J Am Diet Assoc. 1993;93:408-415.

506. Andersen T, Astrup A, Quaade F. Dexfenfluramine as adjuvant to a low-calorie formula diet in the treatment of obesity: a randomized clinical trial. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1992;16:35-40.

507. Guy-Grand B, Apfelbaum M, Crepaldi G, Gries A, Lefebvre P, Turner P. International trial of long-term dexfenfluramine in obesity. Lancet. 1989;2:1142-1145.

508. Finer N. Body weight evolution during dexfenfluramine treatment after initial weight control. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1992;16 (Suppl 3):S25-S29.

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510. Bray GA, Ryan DH, Gordon D, Heidingsfelder S, Cerise F, Wilson K. A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial of sibutramine. Obes Res. 1996;4:263-270.

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512. Schteingart DE. Effectiveness of phenylpropanolamine in the management of moderate obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1992;16:487-493.

513. Jones SP, Smith IG, Kelly F, Gray JA. Long term weight loss with sibutramine. Int J Obes. 1995;19 (Suppl 2):41[abstract 071].

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515. Andersen T, Backer OG, Stokholm KH, Quaade F. Randomized trial of diet and gastroplasty compared with diet alone in morbid obesity. N Engl J Med. 1984;310:352-356.

516. Andersen T, Backer OG, Astrup A, Quaade F. Horizontal or vertical banded gastroplasty after pretreatment with very-low-calorie formula diet: a randomized trial. Int J Obes. 1987;11:295-304.

517. Brolin RE, Kenler HA, Gorman JH, Cody RP. Long-limb gastric bypass in the super-obese, a prospective randomized study. Ann Surg. 1992;215:387-395.

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