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Guidelines on Overweight and Obesity: Electronic Textbook
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A.2.

Overweight or BMI Data for Puerto Rican-Americans, Cuban-Americans, and Selected Samples of American Indians, Asians, and Pacific Islanders

  • a. Percentage of overweight Cuban and Puerto Rican males and females, age 20 to 74, 1982-1984.

    b. Selected studies describing the prevalence of overweight in Native Americans, 1981-1993.

    c. Prevalence of overweight (BMI greater than or equal to 85th percentile) and obesity (BMI greater than or equal to 95th percentile) in American Indians and Alaska Natives and United States all races, by gender and age, 1987.

    d. Overweight prevalence and BMI data for Asian-Americans (n=13,031) examined in a northern California HMO, 1978-1985.

    e. Body mass index in four groups of adult Samoans, by age and gender.

    f. Prevalence of obesity (BMI greater than or equal to 30 kg/m2) in 1991, by age, sex, and western Samoa location.


Table III.A.2.a: Percentage of Overweight Cuban and Puerto Rican Males and Females, Ages 20-74, 1982-1984

Gender/Age Cubans% Puerto Ricans%
Males
20-74 yrs 29.4 25.2
20-74 yrs (age adjusted*) 28.5 25.7
20-24 yrs 21.2 15.8
25-34 27.9 18.9
35-44 25.8 33.4
45-54 34.6 32.9
55-64 yrs 31.7 26.4
65-74 yrs 31.1 31.6
20-29 yrs** 23.5 15.6
Females
20-74 yrs 34.1 37.3
20-74 yrs (age adjusted*) 31.9 39.8
20-24 yrs 13.6 23.6
25-34 23.8 26.5
35-44 32.7 42.7
45-54 37.2 50.2
55-64 yrs 51.4 49.0
65-74 yrs 39.6 61.0
20-29 yrs** 16.2 22.5

*Age adjusted by the direct method to the 1980 census population 20 to 74 years of age using 6 age groups.
**Overweight is defined as a sex-specific body mass index (kilograms divided by height in meters squared) equal to or greater than the 95th percentile for examinees 20 to 29 years of age examined in the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II).
Note:  Excludes pregnant woman.
Source:  Najjar MF, Kuczmarski RJ. 1989.  Anthropometric data and prevalence of overweight for Hispanics: 1982-1984. National Center for Health Statistics.  Vital Health Stat 11 (239) (27).


Table III.A.2.b: Selected Studies Describing
the Prevalence of Overweight in Native Americans, 1981-1993

Population
Source
Age
Year
Definition of Overweight*
Total
Males
Females
Adults           % %
Native Americans, national Self-report 18+ 1987
a
  33.7 40.3
Native Americans by region Self-report 18+ 1985-1988
a
     
Southwest           30.0 28.5
Plains           27.8 35.7
West           22.7 26.8
Other regions           24.0 23.9
Alaskan Yup'ik Eskimos Measured  18+ 1987-1988
a
  34.0 56.0
Alaskan Athabascan Indians Measured  18+ 1987-1988
a
  29.0 55.0
Cherokee Indians, NC Measured 18+ 1982
c
    59.1
Navajo Indians, NM AZ Measured 20+ 1988
a
43.7 33.1 50.l
Navajo Indians, NM AZ Measured 20-74 1986-1987
d
  42.1 54.7
Penobscot Indians, ME Self-report 18+ 1981
c
35.0    
Pima Indians, AZ Measured 20-54 1981-1988
a
  61-78 81-87
    55+ 1981-1988
a
  31-53 44-74
Zuni Indians, NM Measured 20-39 1987
e
40.0 33.8 56.2
    40-59 1987
e
70.7 55.6 79.2
* Definition of overweight and obesity used by NHANES/NCHS:

a=BMI greater than or equal to 85th percentile NHANES II reference population
b=Weight-for-age > 95th percentile NCHS reference population
c=>120% desirable weight for height, NHANES I
d=BMI >85th percentile NHANES I reference population
e=BMI >27 kg/m2 for males, BMI >26 kg/m2 for females
Source:  Broussard et al.  Toward comprehensive obesity prevention programs in Native American communities.  Obesity Res 1995;3:289-97S.(26)


Table III.A.2.c: Prevalence of Overweight (BMI greater than or equal to 85th Percentile) and Obesity (BMI greater than or equal to95th Percentile) in American Indians and Alaska Natives and U.S. All Races, By Gender and Age, 1987*

  Overweight Obese
Age American Indians and Alaska Natives U.S. All Races American Indians and Alaska Natives U.S. All Races
Males
Total (18+) 33.7 24.1** 13.8 9.1**
18-24 21.5 13.1** 11.0 5.5***
25-34 31.8 19.5** 11.2 7.6
35-44 37.8 27.0** 11.2 10.4
45-54 49.1 33.8** 28.2 14.1**
55-64 45.5 33.1** 16.5 13.0***
65+ 25.2 23.0** 11.1 5.4***
Females
Total (18+)  40.3 25.0** 16.6 8.2**
18-24 25.2 11.5** 11.7 3.9**
25-34 45.1 17.4** 13.8 6.0**
35-44 48.5 28.1** 19.7 10.8**
45-54 54.0 32.0** 18.7 10.9
55-64 45.6 36.2** 18.8 11.5
65+ 45.6 30.1** 20.7 7.7**

*  Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey (NMES).  American Indians and Alaska Natives who are eligible for care through the Indian Health Service (IHS) and who live on or near reservations.  BMI, body mass index in kg/m2.
**Statistically significant at oc=0.05.
***Relative SE greater than or equal to  30%
Source:  Broussard et al.  Prevalence of obesity in American Indians and Alaska Natives Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53:1535-42S.(628)


Table III.A.2.d: Overweight Prevalence and BMI Data for Asian-Americans (N=13,031) Examined in a Northern California HMO, 1978-1985

Trait Chinese Filipino Japanese Other Asian
Age (mean ± SD)
Males 40.2±14.2 39.2±13.4 42.1±14.1 35.9±10.4
Females 38.0±13.6 36.8±11.6 40.9±13.4 34.1±10.5
BMIgreater than or equal to24.4 kg/m2
Males 26.9 41.8 38.0 28.9
Females 12.8 25.5 18.0 14.6
Mean BMI*
Males 22.9 23.9 23.7 23.6
Females 21.2 22.8 21.6 22.2

* Adjusted for age, marital status, education, and alcohol intake.
Source:  Klatsky AL, Armstrong MA. Cardiovascular risk factors among Asian Americans living in Northern California.  Am J Public Health 1991;81:1423-1428 (51).


Table III.A.2.e: BMI in Four Groups of Adult Samoans, by Age and Gender*

Gender/Age Western Samoa Manu'a Tutuila Hawaii
Males
20-24 24.6±2.8 26.4±2.6 26.5±3.6 30.4±4.6
25-34 25.1±3.2 30.7±4.4 30.2±5.0 31.3±6.0
35-44 26.5±4.3 29.2±4.7 30.4±5.5 32.6±5.4
45-54 27.1±4.9 27.2±4.7 32.0±6.4 31.3±5.7
55-64 28.8±5.4 28.7±4.5 28.6±6.2 31.6±8.9
65-74 26.5±3.9 28.7±4.5 28.6±6.2 31.6±5.7
Total 26.2±4.2 28.6±5.0 29.8±5.7 31.6±5.7
Females
20-24 25.3±3.9 29.5±7.9 27.9±4.9 29.9±5.8
25-34 26.7±4.1 32.3±6.0 32.4±6.6 34.3±7.8
35-44 29.0±4.7 35.1±5.8 34.4±6.6 35.8±7.7
45-54 29.6±4.8 33.8±7.4 35.3±6.7 34.7±6.5
55-64 31.0±8.4 30.7±6.1 33.3±7.5 34.1±5.5
65-74 28.6±4.1 29.5±5.8 32.3±5.9 33.4±6.9
Total 27.7±4.8 32.7±6.9 33.0±6.9 33.6±7.2

* SD. BMI in kg/m2.
Source: McGarvey ST.  Obesity in Samoans and a perspective on its etiology in Polynesians.  Am J Clin Nutr1991;53:1586S-94S.(50)


Table III.A.2.f: Prevalence of Obesity (BMI greater than or equal to 30 kg/m2) in 1991, by Age, Gender, and Western Samoa Location

Gender/Age No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)
Males
25-34 71 45.1 58 36.2 51 21.6
35-44 77 70.1 58 43.1 58 46.6
45-54 64 67.2 48 52.1 51 45.1
55-64 78 51.3 40 57.5 44 40.9
65+ 40 60.0 28 32.1 30 43.3
Overall 330 58.5 232 44.4 234 39.3
Age-std*   56.9   43.5   35.9
95% CI   51.2-62.6   36.9-50.1   29.7-42.1
Females
25-34 97 57.7 74 52.7 61 52.5
35-44 83 89.2 48 66.7 77 57.9
45-54 120 84.2 40 70.0 63 66.7
55-64 96 86.5 34 64.7 40 52.5
65+ 43 62.8 27 63.0 30 46.7
Overall 439 77.7 223 61.9 271 57.2
Age-std*   74.3   61.5   56.2
95% CI   69.9-78.7   55.1-68.0   50.2-62.7

* Age-std=age standardized by direct method to 1986 census population.
Source:  Hodge AM, Dowse GK, Toelupe P, Collins VR, Imo T, Zimmet PZ.  Dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity in Western Samoa over the 13-year period 1978-1991.  Int J Obesity 1994;18:419-428 (629).

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