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Peer review is one of the hallmarks of the NIH 

National Institutes of Health (NIH)
the United State's medical research agency, a federal government agency composed of diverse Institutes and Centers that conduct and support biomedical and behavioral research. NIH Homepage.
funding process.  Applications are evaluated initially by review groups composed of extramural research scientists to rate the scientific and technical merit of the proposed research.  This takes place either at CSR 
Center for Scientific Review (CSR)
the portal for NIH grant 
financial assistance mechanism providing money, property, or both to an eligible entity to carry out an approved project or activity. A grant is used whenever the NIH Institute or Center anticipates no substantial programmatic involvement with the recipient during performance of the financially assisted activities.
applications and their review for scientific merit. It organizes the peer review groups that evaluate the majority (70%) of the research grant applications sent to NIH. CSR Homepage
or at the Institute ( NHLBI 
National Heart, Lung, Blood Institute (NHLBI)
a NIH Institute that provides leadership for a national program in diseases of the heart, lung, and blood as well as blood resources, sleep disorders and the Woman's Health Initiative. NHLBI Homepage.

The second level of peer review is carried out by the NHLBI Advisory Council. The Council 

also known as NHLBAC, this group considers applications and advises the Institute on research grants, training grants and cooperative agreements to recommend funding for applications that show promise of making valuable contributions.
is composed of scientists from the extramural research community and public representatives. Its purpose is to ensure that NHLBI receives advice from a cross-section of the US population in the process of its deliberation and decisions. 

The review process can sometimes seem secretive but this section is designed to help you better understand the process and answer the following questions:

Page Last Updated: February 2011
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