4. Disease Statistics

Cardiovascular, lung, and blood diseases constitute a large morbidity, mortality, and economic burden on individuals, families, and the Nation. Common forms are atherosclerosis, hypertension, COPD, and blood-clotting disorders—embolisms and thromboses. The most serious atherosclerotic diseases are CHD, as manifested by heart attack and angina pectoris, and cerebrovascular disease, as manifested by stroke.

In 2010, cardiovascular, lung, and blood diseases accounted for 1,017,000 deaths and 41 percent of all deaths in the United States (p. 35). The estimated economic cost in 2009 for these diseases was $424 billion—23 percent of the total economic costs of illness, injuries, and death (p. 51). Of all diseases, heart disease is the leading cause of death; chronic lower respiratory diseases (CLRD), which includes COPD and asthma, ranks third (behind cancer); and cerebrovascular disease is fourth (p. 38). Cardiovascular and lung diseases account for 3 of the 4 leading causes of death (p. 38) and 4 of the 10 leading causes of infant death (p. 44). Hypertension, asthma, CHD, and COPD are especially prevalent and account for substantial morbidity in Americans (p. 47).

The purpose of the biomedical research conducted by the NHLBI is to contribute to the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular, lung, and blood diseases and sleep disorders. National disease statistics show that by mid-20th century, morbidity and mortality from these diseases had reached record high levels. Since then, however, substantial improvements have been achieved, especially over the past 40 years, as shown by the significant decline in mortality rates. Because many of these diseases begin early in life, their early detection and control can reduce the risk of disability and can delay death. Although important advances have been made in the treatment and control of cardiovascular, lung, and blood diseases, these diseases continue to be a major burden on the Nation.

Mortality statistics in this chapter are for diseases or conditions classified as the underlying cause of death. Heart failure, however, is never truly an underlying cause even though 57,757 deaths in 2010 were nominally coded to it as the underlying cause. Therefore, in this chapter, mortality statistics attributed to any mention of heart failure represent it as either the underlying cause or a contributing cause of death.

Cardiovascular Diseases

  • In 2010, CVD caused 788,000 deaths—32 percent of all deaths (p. 35).
  • Heart disease is the leading cause of death; the main form, CHD, caused 380,000 deaths in 2010 (pp. 36, 38).
  • The annual number of deaths from CVD increased substantially from 1900 to 1970 and remains high (p. 37).
  • The death rate (not age-adjusted) for CVD increased from 1920 until it peaked in 1968. Since then, the trend has been downward. In 2010, the rate was below the all-time low in 1900 (p. 37).
  • Cerebrovascular disease, the fourth leading cause of death, accounted for 129,000 deaths in 2010 (pp. 36, 38).
  • Heart disease is second only to all cancers combined in years of potential life lost (p. 38).
  • Heart disease is the leading cause of death in blacks, but second to cancer in Hispanics, Asians, and American Indians. Stroke ranks as the third or fourth leading cause of death in the minority groups, except in American Indians or Alaska Natives, where it ranks seventh (p.  38).
  • Deaths with heart failure as the underlying or contributing cause increased from 1970 to 1993 and then remained constant to 2010 (p. 39).
  • From 1999 to 2010, death rates for CHD and stroke declined in non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks; CHD and stroke death rates decreased among Hispanics, Asians, and American Indians from 1999 to 2008 but remained stable or increased in 2009 to 2010. CHD and stroke mortality continues to be highest in the black population (p. 40).
  • Because of the rapid decline in mortality from CHD since the peak in 1968, there were 1,223,000 fewer deaths from CHD in 2010 than would have occurred if there had been no decline (p. 41).
  • Substantial improvements have been made in the treatment of CVD. Since 1990, the percent of hospitalizations for AMI, stroke, and heart failure that were discharged dead declined appreciably (p.  41).
  • From 1990 to 2010, CHD mortality declined in the United States, but remained higher than in many other countries, particularly among females (only selected countries are shown) (p. 42).
  • From 2001 to 2010, the percentage decline in death rates for CHD and stroke was fairly similar for whites and blacks (p. 43).
  • A 2007–2010 national survey showed that an estimated 83.6 million persons in the United States had CVD, including 77.9 million with hypertension and 15.4 million with CHD (p.  47).
  • Since the 1960s, there has been a substantial reduction in the prevalence of CVD risk factors:  hypertension, smoking, and high cholesterol. During that time, the prevalence of overweight adults has consistently increased (p. 48).
  • From 1976–1980 to 2007–2010, the percentage of persons with hypertension who were aware of their condition, on treatment for it, and having their blood pressure under control increased substantially (p.  49).
  • A 2007–2010 national survey showed only about 52 percent of hypertensive patients (systolic BP ≥ 140 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥ 90 mmHg or on antihypertensive medication) had their condition under control (p. 49).
  • Hospitalization rates for heart failure in those aged 45 to 64 years increased from 1971 to 1993 and remained stable to 2010. Rates for those aged 65 years and older increased from 1971 to 1998 and remained relatively stable until 2005; rates then declined through 2010 (p. 50).
  • The estimated economic cost of CVD for 2009 was $313 billion:
    • $192 billion in direct health expenditures
    • $121 billion in indirect cost of mortality (p. 51).

Lung Diseases

  • Lung diseases, excluding lung cancer, caused an estimated 235,000 deaths in 2010 (p. 35).
  • CLRD caused 138,000 deaths in 2010 and is the third leading cause of death (pp. 36, 38).
  • From 2001 to 2010, death rates for asthma declined in both black and white males and females; death rates for COPD declined in both black and white males but rose in both black and white females (p. 43).
  • From 1980 to 2010, infant death rates for various lung diseases declined markedly (p. 43).
  • In 2010, of the 10 leading causes of infant mortality, 4 were lung diseases or had a lung disease component (p.  44). From 2000 to 2010, changes in mortality for the causes were:
    • Congenital malformations (-10 percent)
    • Disorders of short gestation (-4 percent)
    • Sudden infant death syndrome (-17 percent)
    • Respiratory distress syndrome (-48 percent).
  • In 2010, approximately one in six deaths in children under 1 year of age was due to a lung disease (p. 44).
  • From 1990 to 2010, the CLRD death rate for females in the United States and Finland increased appreciably compared with the rates in several other countries (p. 45).
  • From 1999 to 2010, death rates for CLRD in males decreased in all racial/ethnic groups except American Indians; their death rates fluctuated. In females, death rates for CLRD increased slightly in non-Hispanic whites and remained stable in non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, and Asians during the period (p. 46).
  • Among the sleep disorders from 2000 to 2010, physician office visits for sleep apnea increased from 2.0 to 2.7 million and for insomnia increased from 2.4 to 5.8 million (p. 46).
  • Asthma is a common chronic condition, particularly in children (pp. 47, 48, 50).
  • The economic cost of asthma, COPD, and pneumonia was $106 billion in 2009:
    • $81 billion in direct health expenditures
    • $25 billion in indirect cost of mortality (p. 51).

Blood Diseases

  • Approximately 10,000 deaths were attributed to blood diseases in 2010 (p.  35). These include the following:
    • 4,900 due to anemias
    • 1,900 due to coagulation defects
    • 800 due to purpura
    • 2,400 due to other blood diseases.
  • A large proportion of deaths from AMI, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral artery disease involve blood-clotting problems (no estimate available).
  • In 2009, anemias cost the Nation’s economy $6 billion:
    • $5 billion in direct health expenditures
    • $1 billion in indirect cost of mortality (p. 51).

Deaths From All Causes and Deaths From Cardiovascular, Lung, and Blood Diseases, U.S., 1990 and 2010

Cause of Death 1990 Number of Deaths 1990 Percent of Total 2010 Number of Deaths 2010 Percent of Total
All Causes 2,148,463 100 2,468,435 100
All Cardiovascular, Lung, and Blood Diseases
1,132,068 53 1,017,381 41
Cardiovascular Diseases
926,079 43 787,650 32
Blood
9,365 <1 9,953 <1
Lung
208,947* 10 234,533** 9
All Other Causes 1,016,395 47 1,451,054 59

* Includes 11,838 CVD deaths due to pulmonary heart disease and 485 deaths due to sarcoidosis.
** Includes 13,808 CVD deaths involving pulmonary heart disease and 947 deaths due to sarcoidosis.
Source: Vital Statistics of the United States, National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). 

 

Deaths by Major Causes, U.S., 2010
Deaths From Cardiovascular, Lung, and Blood Diseases, U.S., 2010
Death by Major Causes
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Deaths from Cardiovascular, Lung, and Blood Diseases
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*Excludes 13,808 deaths from pulmonary heart disease and 947 deaths due to sarcoidosis.
Source:  Vital Statistics of the United States, NCHS. 
 

Deaths From Specific Cardiovascular, Lung, and Blood Diseases, U.S., 2010

Cause of Death Cardiovascular
Deaths (Thousands)
Lung
Deaths (Thousands)
Blood
Deaths (Thousands)
Acute Myocardial Infarction 122 —*
Other Coronary Heart Disease 257
Cerebrovascular Diseases (Stroke) 129 —*
Other Atherosclerosis 26
Pulmonary Embolism 7 7** —*
Deep Vein Thrombosis 3 —*
Other Cardiovascular Diseases 243 7**
Bleeding and Red Blood Cell Diseases 10†
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 135
Asthma 3
Influenza and Pneumonia 50
Neonatal Pulmonary Disorders 4
Interstitial Lung Diseases 8
Lung Diseases Due to External Agents 18
Other Lung Diseases 3
Total 788 235 10

* Deaths from pulmonary disorders also included as CVD.
** Deaths from anemias, coagulation defects, purpura, and other blood diseases. Deaths attributed to blood-clotting diseases classified to AMI, stroke, and peripheral artery disease are not included.
†Most deaths from this cardiovascular disease can be classified as a blood-clotting disease. No good estimate is available.
‡Numbers do not sum to the total due to rounding.
Note: Total, excluding overlap, is 1,017,381.
Source:  Vital Statistics of the United States, NCHS.

Deaths From Cardiovascular Diseases, U.S., 2010
Deaths From Lung Diseases, U.S., 2010
Deaths From Blood Diseases, U.S., 2010
Deaths from Cardiovascular Diseases
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Deaths from Lung Diseases
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Deaths from Blood Diseases
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* Includes heart failure, cardiac dysrhythmias, hypertensive disease, deep vein thrombosis, and other heart and blood vessel diseases.
Note: Numbers do not sum to 100 percent due to rounding.
Source: Vital Statistics of the United States, NCHS.

Deaths From Cardiovascular Diseases, U.S., 1900–2010

Deaths from Cardiovascular Diseases
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Source: Vital Statistics of the United States, NCHS.

Death Rates* for Cardiovascular Diseases, U.S., 1900–2010

Death Rates for Cardiovascular Disease
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*Not age-adjusted.
Source: Vital Statistics of the United States, NCHS.

Ten Leading Causes of Death: Death Rates, U.S., 2010

10 Leading Causes of Death
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*  Not age-adjusted.
** Includes 122.9 deaths per 100,000 population from CHD (dark bar).
† CLRD is the term used in the ICD/10 for COPD and asthma.
‡Based on the average remaining years of life up to age 78.7 years (life expectancy at birth in 2010).
Note: Diseases shown in bold are those addressed in Institute programs.
Source: Vital Statistics of the United States, NCHS.

Ten Leading Causes of Death Among Minority Groups, U.S., 2010

10 Leading Causes of Death Among Minority Groups-Blacks
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10 Leading Causes of Death Among Minority Groups-Hispanics
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10 Leading Causes of Death Among Minority Groups-Asians
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10 Leading Causes of Death Among Minority Groups-American Indians
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Note: Causes of death shown in bold are those addressed in Institute programs.
Source: Vital Statistics of the United States, NCHS.

Age-Adjusted Death Rates for Cardiovascular and Noncardiovascular Diseases, U.S., 1963, 1990, and 2010

Cause of Death Deaths/100,000 Population* Percent Change 1963-2010 Percent Change 1990-2010
1963 1990 2010
All Causes

1,346

938

747

-45

-20

Cardiovascular Diseases

805

413

236

-71

-43

Coronary Heart Disease

478

218

114

-76

-48

Stroke

174

69**

39

-78

-43

Other

153

125

83

-46

-34

Noncardiovascular Diseases

541

526

512

-5

-3

COPD and Asthma

16

39

42

156

9

Other

524

487

469

-11

-4

*  Age-adjusted.
**  ICD 10/9 comparability ratio (1.0502) applied.
ICD 10/9 comparability ratio (1.0411) applied.
Source: Vital Statistics of the United States, NCHS.

Deaths Attributed to Heart Failure,* U.S., 1970–2010

Deaths From Heart Failure
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* Heart failure as the underlying cause of death or otherwise mentioned on the death certificate.
Note: Breaks in trend line indicate change in ICD codes.
Source: Vital Statistics of the United States, NCHS.

Age-Adjusted Death Rates for Coronary Heart Disease by Race/Ethnicity and Sex, U.S., 1999–2010

Death Rates for Heart Disease by Race/Ethnicity and Sex
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*Non-Hispanic.
Source: Vital Statistics of the United States, NCHS.

Age-Adjusted Death Rates for Stroke by Race/Ethnicity and Sex, U.S., 1999–2010

Death Rates for Stroke by by Race/Ethnicity and Sex
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*Non-Hispanic.
Source: Vital Statistics of the United States, NCHS.

Age-Adjusted Death Rates for Coronary Heart Disease, U.S., 1950–2010
Actual Rate and Expected Rates if Rise Had Continued or Reached a Plateau

Death Rates for Coronary Heart Disease
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Source: Vital Statistics of the United States, NCHS.

Common Cardiovascular and Lung Diseases With High Percentage Discharged Dead From Hospitals, U.S., 1990, 2000, and 2010

Common Cardiovascular and Lung Disease With High Percentage Discharged Dead From Hospitals
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Source: National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS), NCHS.

Death Rates* for Coronary Heart Disease in Males, Ages 35–74, in Selected Countries, 1990–2010

Death Rates for Coronary Heart Disease in Males Ages 35-74
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* Age-adjusted to the European Standard Population.
** United Kingdom for 2008–2010; England and Wales for 1990–2007.
Source: WHO Mortality Database.

Death Rates* for Coronary Heart Disease in Females, Ages 35–74, in Selected Countries, 1990–2010

Death Rates for Coronary Heart Disease in Females Ages 35-74 years
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* Age-adjusted to the European Standard Population.
** United Kingdom for 2008–2010; England and Wales for 1990–2007.
Source: WHO Mortality Database.

Percent Change in Age-Adjusted Death Rates for Selected Causes by Race and Sex, U.S., 2001–2010

Change in Death Rates for Selected Causes by Race and Sex
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Source: Vital Statistics of the United States, NCHS.

Death Rates for Lung Diseases in Infants, U.S., 1980–2010

Death Rates for Lung Diseases in Infants
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Source: Vital Statistics of the United States, NCHS.

Ten Leading Causes of Infant Mortality, U.S., 2010

10 Leading Causes of Infant Mortality
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*   Congenital CVD and congenital respiratory diseases accounted for 43.1 deaths under age 1 per 100,000 live births (black bar), which is 34 percent of infant deaths due to all congenital malformations.
**  From 2000 to 2010, congenital CVD declined 27 percent; congenital malformations of the respiratory system declined 41 percent; other congenital malformations increased 7 percent.
Note:  Diseases shown in bold are those addressed in Institute programs.
Source: Vital Statistics of the United States, NCHS.

Deaths Under Age 1 Year Due to Cardiovascular and Lung Diseases, U.S., 2010

Cause of Death Deaths Under Age 1 Deaths Under Age 1 Year Due to Cardiovascular and Lung Diseases
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All Causes

24,586

Cardiovascular Diseases

1,831

Congenital Malformations

1,324

Other

507

Lung Diseases

3,985

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

2,063

Respiratory Distress Syndrome

514

Pneumonia

179

Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD)

56

Atelectasis

248

Congenital Malformations

399

Other Lung Diseases

526

Other Diseases

18,770

Note: Diseases shown in bold are those addressed in Institute programs.
Source: Vital Statistics of the United States, NCHS.

Death Rates* for Chronic Lower Respiratory Diseases in Males, Ages 35 Years and Older, in Selected Countries, 1990–2010

Death Rates* for Chronic Lower Respiratory Diseases in Males Ages 35+ Years
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* Age-adjusted to the European Standard Population.
** United Kingdom for 2008–2010; England and Wales for 1990–2007
Source: WHO Mortality Database.

Death Rates* for Chronic Lower Respiratory Diseases in Females, Ages 35 Years and Older, in Selected Countries, 1990–2010

Death Rates* for Chronic Lower Respiratory Diseases in Females Ages 35+ Years
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* Age-adjusted to the European Standard Population.
** United Kingdom for 2008–2010; England and Wales for 1990–2007
Source: WHO Mortality Database.

Age-Adjusted Death Rates for Chronic Lower Respiratory Diseases by Race/Ethnicity and Sex, U.S., 1999–2010

Age-Adjusted Death Rates for Chronic Lower Respiratory Diseases by Race/Ethnicity and Sex
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* Non-Hispanic.
Source: Vital Statistics of the United States, NCHS.

Physician Office Visits for Sleep Disorders, U.S., 2000–2010

Physician Office Visits for Sleep Disorders
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Note: Primary and secondary diagnoses.
Source: National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, NCHS.

Prevalence of Common Cardiovascular and Lung Diseases, U.S., 2007–2011

Disease Number of Persons
Cardiovascular Diseases* 83,600,000
Hypertension** 77,900,000
Coronary Heart Disease 15,400,000
Heart Failure 5,100,000
Stroke 6,800,000
Congenital Heart Disease 1,000,000
Asthma 39,500,000
COPD§ 12,700,000

*  Includes hypertension, CHD, stroke, or heart failure for ages 20 years and older.
**  Hypertension is defined as systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg, or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg, or being on antihypertensive medication, or being told twice of having hypertension.
† Range from 650,000 to 1,300,000 for ages 18 years and older (Am Heart J 2004;147:425–439).
‡ 25,900,000 still have asthma and of those, 13,200,000 have had an attack in the past 12 months, for all ages.
§ An estimated 12,700,000 diagnosed (2011) and 12,000,000 undiagnosed (2006), for ages 18 years and older.
Sources: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2010, NCHS and National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) 2011, NCHS.

Prevalence of Cardiovascular Diseases* in Adults by Age and Sex, U.S., 2007-2010

Prevalence of Cardiovascular Diseases* in Adults by Age and Sex
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*  Hypertension, CHD, stroke, or heart failure. Hypertension is defined as systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg, or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg, or being on antihypertensive medication.
Source: NHANES, 2007–2010, NCHS.

Prevalence of Common Cardiovascular and Lung Diseases by Age, U.S., 2007–2011

Prevalence of Common Cardiovascular and Lung Diseases by Age
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Source: NHIS and NHANES, NCHS.

Age-Adjusted Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Adults, U.S., 1961–2011

Age-Adjusted Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Adults
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Notes:  Hypertension is defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg, or being on antihypertensive medication. High cholesterol is ≥240 mg/dL. Overweight is BMI ≥25 kg/m2. Data were collected at six time periods: 1960–1961 (plotted at 1961), 1971–1974 (plotted at 1972), 1976–1980 (plotted at 1978), 1988–1994 (plotted at 1991), 1999–2002 (plotted at 2002), 2003–2006 (plotted at 2006), and 2007–2010 (plotted at 2010).
Sources:  NHIS for smoking, ages ≥18, NCHS; NHANES for the other risk factors, ages 20–74, NCHS.

Hypertensive* Population Aware, Treated, and Controlled, Ages 18 and Older, U.S., 1976–1980 to 2007–2010

Hypertensive Population Aware, Treated, and Controlled, Age 18+
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*  Hypertension is defined as systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mm Hg, or diastolic blood pressure > 90 mm Hg, or being on antihypertensive medication.
Source: NHANES, NCHS.

Adult Population With Hypertension* by Age, Race/Ethnicity, and Sex, U.S., 2007–2010

Adult Population With Hypertension* by by Age, Race/Ethnicity, and Sex
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*   Hypertension is systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mm Hg, or being on antihypertensive medication.
** Non-Hispanic.
Sources: NHANES, NCHS.

Hospitalization Rates for Heart Failure, Ages 45–64 and 65 and Older, U.S., 1971–2010

Hospitalization Rates for Heart Failure, Ages 45–64 Years and 65+ Years
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Source: NHDS, NCHS.

Prevalence of Asthma Episodes in Previous 12 Months by Age, U.S., 1997–2011

Persons Experiencing Asthma Episodes in Previous 12 Months by Age
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Source: NHIS, NCHS.

Direct and Indirect Economic Costs of Illness by Major Diagnosis, U.S., 2009

  Amount (Dollars in Billions) Direct Cost* Amount (Dollars in Billions) Indirect Cost of Mortality** Amount (Dollars in Billions) Total Percent Distribution Direct Cost Percent Distribution Indirect Cost of Mortality Percent Distribution
Total
Cardiovascular Diseases $192.1 $120.5 $312.6 15.2% 20.0% 16.8%
COPD, Asthma, Pneumonia 81.5 24.6 106.1 6.5 4.1 5.7
Anemias and Other Deficiencies 4.7 1.2 5.8 0.4 0.2 0.3
Subtotal 278.2 146.2 424.4 22.1 24.3 22.8
Neoplasms 86.6 130.0 216.6 6.9 21.6 11.6
Injury and Poisoning 83.2 95.9 179.1 6.6 15.9 9.6
Endocrine, Nutritional, and Metabolic Diseases 110.9 23.5 134.4 8.8 3.9 7.2
Diseases of the Digestive System 85.2 29.2 114.5 6.8 4.9 6.1
Diseases of the Respiratory System 97.7 31.7 129.4 7.8 5.3 6.9
Diseases of the Musculoskeletal System 125.0 3.1 128.1 9.9 0.5 6.9
Diseases of the Nervous System 78.3 16.0 94.3 6.2 2.6 5.1
Mental Disorders 79.8 8.1 87.9 6.3 1.3 4.7
Diseases of the Genitourinary System 66.6 8.2 74.8 5.3 1.4 4.0
Infectious and Parasitic Diseases 22.3 23.9 46.2 1.8 4.0 2.5
Normal Live Birth 33.4 33.4 2.7 1.8
Diseases of the Skin 22.7 0.8 23.5 1.8 0.1 1.3
Other and Not Linked to Specific Condition 171.5 110.7 282.1 13.6 18.4 15.1
Total $1,260.0 $602.8 $1,862.8 100% 100% 100%

*    Direct costs are personal health care expenditures for hospital and professional services care, prescribed medications, and home care reported by the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), by diagnosis, excluding nursing home care costs and costs due to comorbidities.
**  The mortality cost for each disease group was estimated for 2009 by multiplying the number of deaths by age, sex, and cause of death in 2009 by the 2009 present value of lifetime earnings discounted at 3 percent.
†       Includes costs for COPD, asthma, and pneumonia.
Note:  Estimates are not available for total lung diseases and blood clotting disorders.
Source:  Prepared by NHLBI from direct costs on the MEPS Web site; numbers of deaths from Vital Statistics of the United States, NCHS; present value of lifetime earnings from the Institute for Health and Aging, University of California. Total direct cost obtained from MEP Statistical Brief #355, National Health Care Expenses in the U.S. Civilian Noninstitutionalized Population, 2009.

Total Economic Costs of the Leading Diagnostic Groups, U.S., 2009

Total Economic Costs of the Leading Diagnostic Groups
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Source: MEPS, AHRQ.

Direct Economic Cost and Percent Distribution for Selected Conditions by Type of Service, U.S., 2009

  Percent Distribution by Type of Service
Condition Total Direct Cost (in Billions) Hospital Outpatient or Office-Based Provider Visits Hospital Inpatient Stays Emergency Room Visits Prescribed Medicines Home Health
Heart Disease $99.2 21.6% 56.8% 5.6% 8.6% 7.4%
COPD, Asthma 64.2 28.0 26.1 4.9 34.1 6.9
Hypertension 47.5 29.6 12.4 2.7 45.1 10.2
Hyperlipidemia 37.3 28.8 1.9 0.3 66.5 2.4
Stroke 22.8 19.4 47.1 2.5 4.5 26.4
Other Circulatory Conditions 22.6 29.4 58.5 3.5 4.1 4.5
Pneumonia 17.3 6.4 82.0 6.7 1.9 2.9
Anemias 4.7 29.4 57.1 0.3 9.3 3.9

Source:  Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, Household Component Summary Data Tables.

 

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