NHLBI has issued a statement on the role of inflammation on the prevention of heart disease. The statement briefly describes the results of three studies that provide the strongest evidence to date that a simple blood test for high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is a useful marker for cardiovascular disease. One study, known as JUPITER (the Justification for Use of statins in Prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin), demonstrated for the first time that a statin (rosuvastatin) reduces the risk of heart attack, stroke, and death in individuals with high levels of hsCRP and normal or low levels of LDL cholesterol. Two other studies, which were supported by NHLBI, reinforce earlier findings that adding hsCRP levels to assess risk of a first heart attack or stroke in middle-aged or older adults improves accuracy over the traditional assessment tools. Together, these studies show great promise in helping clinicians better identify and treat individuals at risk for cardiovascular disease – potentially saving millions more lives. An expert panel convened by NHLBI will include these findings as part of the rigorous scientific review to distill the scientific evidence and generate an evidence-based, comprehensive set of clinical guidelines for primary care practitioners to help adult patients reduce their risk for cardiovascular disease.